What is Dyneema Composite Fabric (DCF)?
Dyneema Composite Fabric is a non-woven, laminate material that is used to make ultralight backpacking gear including backpacks, tents, tarps, footprints, stuff sacks, and backpack rain covers. It is made by sandwiching ultra-high-weight-molecular polyethylene Dyneema fibers with polyester to produce an exceptionally lightweight, strong, and waterproof material. Dyneema fibers are 15 times stronger than steel by weight, which gives the material its strength.
DCF is available in different thicknesses and weights which are used to make different types of products. Heavier DCF has a higher density of Dyneema threads that increase its strength. Hybrid variants of DCF are laminated with polyester to make them even more abrasion-resistant. For instance, products like backpacks, tents, and tarps take a beating because they come in contact with rough grand so frequently. Polyester coated DCF is also is also easier to dye, providing a wider range of color options.
What is the difference between Dyneema Composite Fabric and Cuben Fiber?
Dyneema Composite Fabric used to be called cuben fiber, CTF3, or non-woven Dyneema. Originally developed to make ultralight sailboat racing sails, cuben fiber was made and marketed by a company called Cubic Tech. Cubic Tech was subsequently acquired by a Dutch Company named Koninklijke DSM N.V, the makers of the Dyneema fibers which are used to make cuben fiber. They renamed and rebranded cuben fiber as “Dymeema Composite Fabric” after the acquisition.
What is the difference between Dyneema X and DCF?
Dyneema X is ripstop nylon with a PU coating that has Dyneema branded fiber woven into it for enhanced durability with a very tight grid pattern. It’s used by many backpack makers, usually in a 210 denier weight fabric. Dyneema X is not non-woven DCF. Calling “Dyneema X” a dyneema fabric is mostly a marketing tool and fairly misleading as the huge bulk of the fabric is just nylon.
How much lighter weight is DCF than other materials used to make ultralight backpacking gear?
You can expect a 25-50% weight reduction by using an item made with DCF. For example, silicon impregnated nylon (silnylon), another popular material for making ultralight backpacks, tents, tarps, stuff sacks, rain gear, and backpack covers, is two to four times heavier than the DCF used for similar applications and products.
How expensive is ultralight backpacking gear made with DCF?
Gear made with DCF is typically 50-75% more expensive than gear made with more conventional fabrics. It is also more labor intensive to make gear with since most of the work must be done manually by highly skilled workers in the United States and can’t be outsourced to Vietnam or China. For example, backpacking gear made with DCF is often taped together by hand instead of sewn, requiring gear companies to evolve highly manual fabrication and styling processes to create products using it.
What other benefits does DCF provide besides weight reduction?
DCF is a waterproof material that doesn’t absorb water like nylon or other woven fabrics. This makes it ideal for making tents, shelters, and backpacks. It also does not stretch like silnylon (used to make ultralight backpacking tents and tarps), eliminating the need for you to adjust tent or tarp guylines at night to counteract fabric sag. DCF is also very tear resistant because the Dyneema fibers embedded in it are so strong. This, in addition to its light weight, was why it was used to make large racing sails.
There’s not such thing as a perfect material for making backpacking gear. What are some of the weakness or disadvantages of using backpacking gear made with DCF?
The DCF used to make tents and tarps is translucent and lets in light that can disturb people who are sensitive to it. Being translucent, it also provides limited privacy, unlike solid fabrics which prevent you from seeing occupants or their backlit silhouettes.
Some sewing is required when making DCF backpacks in order to attach non-DCF shoulder straps, webbing straps, pockets, and hip belts. This creates holes in the fabric which can leak water if not seam sealed or taped. This is the reason that most DCF backpack manufacturers have stopped claiming that their backpacks are watertight, even though DCF is a non-absorbent, waterproof material.
Gear made with DCF occupies more space when stuffed rather than folded or rolled. Frequent folding and unfolding can also weaken the material resulting in fraying or holes, particularly in stuff sacks.
What colors is DCF available in?
Regular DCF is available in light green, light blue, and white. It is used mainly for making tents, tarps, stuff sacks, and backpack covers. Hybrid forms of DCF covered with thicker polyester are easier to dye. They are often available in black, blue, green, orange, or camouflage.
Why don’t all backpacking gear manufacturers switch to using DCF if it’s so great?
DCF is far more expensive to make gear with than other more conventional fabrics and most consumers are unwilling to pay extra for it. That’s unlikely to change unless the cost of DCF drops and automated fabrication processes are invented and tooled to reduce labor costs.
There are also several alternative materials that are comparable to DCF in terms of waterproofness and durability including XPAC and high denier high tenacity nylons called Robic, which are far less expensive. XPAC has also been in use far longer than DCF by mainstream backpacking gear manufacturers.
What companies make ultralight backpacking gear using DCF?
Dozens, but some of the largest, most experienced manufacturers include Hyperlite Mountain Gear, Zpacks.com, and Mountain Laurel Designs, although many smaller companies also create products using the material on a smaller scale.
Where can you buy DCF if you are interested in making your own backpacking gear?
Ripstop by the Roll and MakeYourGear.com are two companies that sell small volumes of DCF and tape to consumers who want to make their own gear.SectionHiker is reader-supported. We independently research, test, and rate the best products. We only make money if you purchase a product through our affiliate links. Help us continue to test and write unsponsored and independent gear reviews, beginner FAQs, and free hiking guides.
Thanks Philip, it may help people understand the price increase when looking at the process required to build gear made of DCF and the cost of the raw material. Also thanks for pointing out alternative fabrics and some of the characteristics and attributes of those materials as well.
The weight difference is most noticeable when you hike with a tent that got wet the night before. A wet silnylon tent is heavier than a dry silnylon tent
On the other hand Cuben fiber instantly turns into a super hot greenhouse in the sun. Pick your poison….
DCF in sunlight is like sitting in a microwave. Awful!
Yeah…was wondering about that…
And the comment about Dyneema X is illuminating.
I’ve never tried a Dyneema/CF tent, but I can tell you that in south Italy in summertime you don’t want to pitch your tent exposed to the sun, whatever the material is made of! :-))
Perhaps you, or other readers can help me. In regards to Cuban fiber for a tent. I have been told that creases occur after time in the fabric and it begins to break down in various ways. For that reason I have stuck with sil nylon as a fabric. I have had the same shelter since 2013 and have had no problem, however I recognize the numerous advantages of Cuban. I take care of my equipment, and I recognize the expense of cuban, I just want it to last for fair amount of time. I’m more concerned about this with shelters, than with packs.
Silnylon also has other advantages, especially for winter use (snow slides off better) and on abrasive soil. Why bother changing if you’re happy with what you have?
Maybe to save base weight?
Obviously. But I can’t get too excited about using a cubic floor on abrasive soil. That’s just pouring money down a drain. Best way to lose base weight is to eat apples for lunch for a month.
You just have me my lunch menu until for the next month!
…menu for the next month!
I would say “dumb Swype” but I’m probably dumber!
Thank you for you reply, and apologize for my late correspondence. The reason I would like to change is
1) It does not absorb water.
2) I would, and need to lower my base weight.
I get the theory, “if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” but my concerns is what I have heard. I just asked because hearing something does not make it true, and also ask your readers, and yourself, if this was true.
I’ve never experienced a breakdown with folding in a cuben fiber shelter and I’ve used plenty
Wonderful FAQ! Minor point, but it is UHMWPE, not UHWMPE. I think other high performance and low weight fabrics will be coming soon.
DCF/Cuben is a good material for tents and such. But without some lamination of a standard material (like poly cloth) it has little abrasion resistance. It is actually HEAVIER when laminated fabrics are used, example HMG, Zpacks and others. As with most things, there is a place for DCF/Cuban in backpacking, but not so much in backpacks. Typically DCF/Cuban laminates weigh more than nylon/Dyneema X fabrics. I have a couple HMG packs in my gear room, they stay there for UL camping trips where weight is my primary concern. They weigh close to two pounds, indeed even the small Daybreak is 20+ ounces and has a small 1700ci volume. (I consider a complete pack one with two side pouches, a front pouch and hip belt, so some of the HMG packs are incomplete modular units.) This puts them firmly in the lightweight category, but not ultralight by any means. (SUL: <8oz, UL: <16oz, Light: 2pound) packs being produced.
Jim, laminating DCF to a cuban would be rather painful. I think you mean cuben. :-)
Ha, yup! Never could spell . . .
I have owned a Duplex in .74 and TT stat Li in .51. Sold both for various reasons not to do with DCF. I would like to know real world comparions about the durability of the different weights…especially when comparing the .66 thicker laminate of the camo and the .74 higher thread count of the spruce in regards to abrasion and limiting possible pin holes as currently looking at the Altaplex.
Iit is my opinion that currently (2020) Tarptent makes both the best designed DCF tents and the best “engineered”. By engineered I mean ALL stress points are single, double or triple reinforced and the stitching is exceptionally well done and well sealed. And by designed I mean Tarptent’s DCF tents have shapes and features that make them ideal for their intended purpose when compared to other brands’ DCF tents.
Due to a local labor shortage in California TT owner Henry Shires has these DCF tents made in China at a premier tent making factory to insure this level of build quality.
Do you have any experience with the new DTRS75 fabric (also labeled ECOPAK) that a few cottage companies (like Hilltop Packs and Ultralitesacks) have started using for dry bags? They are a few dollars cheaper than their dyneema counterparts, but I’m more concerned with their durability. Any thoughts? Also, any thoughts on which fabric holds up best long-term for a dry bag (nylon, dyneema, DTRS75, or something else)? Are any of these more waterproof than another?
Ecopack – it’s available in many different grades is equivalent to DCF, also available in different grades in terms of durability. They’ll all degrade if you use them enough, although nylon, because it is a fabric and not a laminate, will probably hold up the longest when bent and unbent repeatedly. But we’re talking years here. I wouldn’t worry about durability too much. DCF (dyneema composite fabrics) and ecopak will be more water proof than nylon.
Is the DTRS75 material made the same way as the other grades of ECOPAK materials? I thought it was different.
I’ve never heard of it referred to that way.
Looked it up. yeah I have a sample of it that a manufacturer sent me. I’m pretty sure its a new form of ecopack and ultra that doesn’t delaminate, which is a problem that the initial material had.