A Pemi Loop, as it’s known locally, is a 33-mile loop hike that follows the ridgeline encircling the Pemigewasset Wilderness. This 2-3 day route climbs TEN 4000 footers with 9000 feet of elevation gain and has long stretches of above-treeline travel, including a Bonds Traverse and a Franconia Ridge Traverse, two of the most scenic walks in the White Mountains. You can also bring the total number of 4000 footers climbed to TWELVE, by adding in a few short side trips to nearby summits.
This is a tough hike, but one that you’re unlikely to forget for the rest of your life. Some hard-core White Mountain peakbaggers try to hike the entire loop in 24 hours, but my preference is to spread the experience out over multiple days to fully enjoy the awe-inspiring views and star-filled skies at night. The route described below runs in a counter-clockwise direction around the Pemi because it provides better campsite opportunities for backpackers. You can also hike it counter-clockwise by reversing the directions.
E5 - Toggle Open for Key
A: Less than 15 miles in distance
B: 15-20 miles
C: 20-25 miles
D: 25-30 miles or less
E: more than 30 miles
1: 3000 ft or less
2: 4000 ft or less
3: 5000 ft or less
4: 6000 ft or less
5: over 6000 ft
33 miles w/9000′ of cumulative elevation gain
White Mountain 4000 Footers
- Mt Bond
- West Bond
- Zealand (optional side trip)
- South Twin
- North Twin (optional side trip)
mid-June thru October
Most of this route passes through the Pemigewasset Wilderness Area. Please observe all wilderness area restrictions.
MapsThe Appalachian Mountain Club publishes the best maps for the White Mountains and I’d recommend buying the complete AMC White Mountain Waterproof Map Set. It contains three waterproof maps (2 regions per map) although you only need carry one or two on any trip. I also use GPS apps for navigating, but these maps contain relevant trail, shelter and topographic information that is often not included in electronic maps. More detailed trail descriptions can also be found in the AMC White Mountain Guide, which is considered the hiking bible for the region. It includes detailed driving directions to remote trailheads and is indipensible for navigating to them, especially when you're out of cell tower range. Take photos of the pages you need using your phone for easy reference, instead of carrying the entire book with you on hikes.
Navigation AppsI also recommend purchasing a GPS Phone App such as Far Out's White Mountain National Forest Guide, which lists most of the trails, trailheads, shelters, campsites, views, and water sources in the White Mountains National Forest. GaiaGPS is another GPS Phone App, which is stronger in terms of topographic map coverage for the White Mountains but does not have as much information about trailheads, shelters, campsites, views, and water sources. I use both frequently.
The route follows the following trails in sequence.
- Lincoln Woods Trail – 2.9 miles
- Bondcliff Trail – 7.9 miles miles
- West Bond Spur – 1.0 miles (out and back)
- Guyot Shelter Spur – 0.4 miles (out and back)
- Bondcliff Trail – 0.8 miles
- Twinway East (optional out and back) – 2.6 miles
- Twinway West – 2.0 miles
- North Twin Spur – 2.6 miles (optional out and back)
- Twinway – 0.8 miles
- Frost Trail – 0.8 miles (out and back)
- Garfield Ridge Trail – 6.4 miles
- Franconia Ridge Trail – 5.0 miles
- Osseo Trail – 4.1 miles
- Lincoln Woods Trail – 1. 4 miles
The following list provides cumulate distances on the route to each view or landmark.
- Franconia Falls (optional side trip) – 2.9 miles (plus optional 0.4 mile side trail)
- Bondcliff Mountain Summit – 9.1 miles
- Mt Bond Summit – 10 miles
- West Bond Summit – 11 miles
- Guyot Summit – 12.3 miles
- Zealand Mtn – (optional 4K side trip) 1.3 miles from Mt Guyot
- South Twin Summit – 14.3 miles
- North Twin Summit (optional 4K side trip) – 1.3 miles from South Twin
- Galehead Hut – 15.1 miles
- Mt Gale Summit – 15.5 miles
- Garfield Lean-to and tentsite – 18.6 miles
- Garfield Summit – 18.8 miles
- North Lafayette Summit – 21.9 miles
- Lafayette Summit – 22.5 miles
- Greenleaf Hut (optional side trip) – 1.1 miles from Mt Lafayette
- Lincoln Summit – 23.5 miles
- Little Haystack Summit – 24.2
- Liberty Summit – 26 miles
- Mt Flume Summit – 27.5 miles
- USFS Franconia Brook Tentsite (Free) 20 tentsites available for overnight use. Caretaker in-season. First come, first served.
- AMC Guyot Lean-to and Tentsite ($) The Lean-to accommodates 12, with 6 tent platforms. Caretaker in-season. First come, first served.
- AMC Galehead Hut ($$$) Advanced reservations recommended.
- AMC Thirteen Falls Tentsite ($) 9 tent pads. Caretaker in-season. First come, first served.
- AMC Garfield Ridge Campsite ($) 12 person lean-to and 7 tent platforms. Caretaker in-season. First come, first served.
- AMC Greenleaf Hut ($$$) Advanced reservations recommended.
- AMC Liberty Spring Tentsite ($) 10 tent platforms. Caretaker in-season. First come, first served.
Natural water sources are plentiful in the White Mountains although you may need to descend to them from ridgelines along side trails if you run short. In any case, carry a detailed topographic map with you and don’t rely on the overview map provided with this trip description to find water sources.
There are also several stretches along this route where it may be prudent to carry extra water. These include:
- Franconia Falls Trail Junction to Guyot Shelter and Tentsite
- Garfield Shelter Spur Trail to the Liberty Spring Tentsite
This route is sensitive to seasonal and weather conditions which can make it hazardous. This is particularly true for the above-treeline portions of trip which are completely exposed to the elements. The chief hazards are high wind (above 40 mph) which can make walking difficult, rain and cold temperatures which can lead to hypothermia, being struck by lightning, and poor visibility which can make trail finding difficult if you’re not a strong navigator. If the weather deteriorates or is bad, get below treeline, consider ending your trip, or changing your route to where there is more vegetation.
Be sure to check the Weather.gov and Mt Washington Observatory Higher Summits forecasts before your hike. Updated weather conditions are also posted at all of the AMC Huts along the route. It’s not unusual for experienced White Mountain hikers to postpone above-treeline trips and hike alternate, less exposed routes on bad weather days. The month with the greatest thunderstorm danger is July.
On the Trail
Leave the Lincoln Woods trailhead and cross the suspension bridge over the East Branch Pemigewasset River. Turn right at the other end and walk 2.9 miles down the Lincoln Woods Trail until you reach the Franconia Falls Trail junction.
Before crossing the bridge over Franconia Brook to the Bondcliff Trail, you might want to take a short detour to check out nearby Franconia Falls, 0.4 miles down the side trail, on your left. Franconia Falls is a wonderful swimming hole, well worth returning to at some future point.
Crossing the wooden bridge to the beginning of the Bondcliff Trail, follow it down an old railroad grade that was once used to pull lumber out of the forest using horse teams and steam engines. At 4.7 miles, turn left and start climbing, still following the Bondcliff Trail, as it climbs alongside Black Brook, with several easy stream crossings. The last time I hiked this route, those stream crossings were unexpectedly dry so you might want to bring extra water, or check NETrailConditions.com for recent trip reports, to see if they mention water availability. The next reliable water is at the Guyot Lean-to and Tent site at 12.3 miles.
At 8.8 miles, you’ll scramble up a rock ledge that’s often called “Hillary’s Step” before emerging above treeline on Bondcliff Mountain, one of the most scenic cliffside traverses in the Whites. To the west (left), spreads Franconia Ridge, Owls Head Mountain, and the heart of the Pemigewasset Wilderness. This is a sight to behold and many people linger for hours absorbing the view.
Since Bondcliff is a cliff, use caution if you’re accompanied by children or a pet. The trail is marked by rock cairns, which should be followed carefully, to avoid disturbing the sensitive alpine flora along the east side (rear) of the mountain. Stay well to the right (east) if it’s windy, visibility is poor, or darkness has fallen. There’s a reason the region below the cliffs is called Hellgate.
The trail runs along the top of Bondcliff for about a mile before climbing steeply up a boulder-choked trail to Mt Bond, which also has tremendous views to the east, including Mt Washington.
Continuing north, descend the Bondcliff Trail to the West Bond Trail spur on your left, and follow it 0.5 miles to the West Bond Summit. The morning and evening views of Bondcliff from this viewpoint are quite breathtaking and it’s well worth hiking from the nearby Guyot Shelter and Tent site to experience them. While walking along the ridgeline of Bondcliff is quite an experience, seeing its rakish profile from West Bond is equally awe-inspiring.
Return to the Bondcliff Trail, turning left, until you reach the Guyot Shelter Spur Trail. This is good place to camp because it has water and bear boxes, tent platforms, and a lean-to. During the summer months, you’ll meet Appalachian Trail Thru-hikers who also stop to camp here.
Climb back up to the Bondcliff Trail from the Guyot Shelter Spur Trail and continue north towards Mt Guyot, an exposed dome-shaped peak, until you reach the Twinway Trail junction. If you want to climb nearby Zealand Mountain, also on the 4000 footer list, you can turn right (east) at the junction and hike 2.6 miles, out and back, to bag the peak. If not, turn left (northwest) and continue towards South Twin Mountain, in 2.0 miles, passing through the dense woods that border the trail.
The Twinway pops back up above treeline at the South Twin summit, which also has tremendous views. In summer, you can often see glider pilots soaring on the thermals above. If you want to climb nearby North Twin Mountain, also on the 4000 footer list, follow the North Twin Spur Trail for 2.6 miles, out and back. If not, continue along the Twinway, descending steeply for 0.8 miles down a rocky trail, before arriving at the AMC’s Galehead Hut.
Day hikers are welcome to enter and visit the huts, where you can get out of the weather, check the forecast, and purchase snacks prepared by the hut crew. Water and bathrooms are also available.
From the Galehead Hut porch, it’s just 0.4 miles up the Frost Trail to the Gale Mountain summit. There’s also a nice ledge viewpoint on the left near to summit sign.
Return to the AMC Galehead hut and make your way to the Garfield Trail/Twinway Trail junction, at the end of the spur trail leading to Galehead Hut. Turn left onto the Garfield Ridge Trail and follow it over a series of small peaks for 2.9 miles to the Garfield Shelter Spur junction, where a piped water source is available on the immediate right. The trail is quite rough and rocky in this section, and often wet, so take your time hiking it.
Continue climbing the Garfield Ridge Trail, bearing left where the similarly named Garfield Trail enters from the right, and scramble over open ledges to the Garfield summit which has an old fire tower foundation. From Garfield, you can see the east side of Franconia Ridge, your next destination. South Twin Mountain, Owls Head, Bondcliff, and many others can be seen from this fine viewpoint.
Retrace your steps to the Garfield Ridge Trail and dip below treeline again, heading southwest. Follow the ridgeline for 2.9 miles, climbing past the Skookumchuck Trail, which enters on the right. Ascend the north knob of Mt Lafayette, also called North Lafayette, once again climbing above treeline.
Follow the cairns to the Mt Lafayette summit in 0.8 miles, where the Franconia Ridge Trail begins. From Lafayette, you can see the Kinsman Range and Mt Cannon to the west, on the other side of Rt 302. On a clear day, you should be able to see all of the peaks to the west that you climbed earlier on this route, including Bondcliff.
When hiking the Franconia Ridge it’s important to remain between the scree walls that demarcate the trail to avoid stepping on fragile alpine vegetation and potentially harming it. These slow-growing plants are buried in snow for all but a few months each year and have a hard time recovering if they’re trampled and damaged. While it’s tempting to roam over the open ledges on the east and west sides of the ridge, this trail is so popular in summer, that these plants are in serious jeopardy of disappearing forever.
Follow the Franconia Ridge South as it travels over Mt Lincoln and Little Haystack until it reaches the Liberty Spring Trail Junction. If you need water, there’s a spring down this trail at the AMC’s Liberty Spring Tentsite in 0.3 miles.
Continue south on the Franconia Ridge Trail for another 0.3 miles to the summit of Mt Liberty, which has a small but open summit. The trail follows a ledge down the south side, dropping into a col, before climbing again to the summit of Mt Flume in 1.1 miles. The Franconia Ridge Trail ends 0.1 miles south of the Flume summit, at a trail junction, where the Osseo Trail begins.
The Osseo Trail runs down Flume gradually at first and then more steeply, climbing down steep wooden staircases at points. In 4.1 miles, it reaches the Lincoln Woods Trail. Turn right at this junction and follow the Lincoln Woods Trail for 1.4 miles, turning left at the suspension bridge over the East Branch Pemigewasset River to the starting point of this route.
About the author
Safety DisclaimerThis trip plan can not alert you to every hazard, anticipate your experience, or limitations. Therefore, the descriptions of roads, trails, routes, shelters, tent sites, and natural features in this trip plan are not representations that a particular place or excursion will be safe for you or members of your party. When you follow any of the routes described on SectionHiker.com, you assume responsibility for your own safety. Under normal conditions, such excursions require the usual attention to traffic, road and trail conditions, weather, terrain, the capabilities of your party, and other factors. Always check for current conditions, obey posted signs, and Backcountry Camping and Wilderness Area Regulations. Hike Safe and follow the Hiker responsibility code.
- South Twin
- Carter Dome
- North Twinn
- Middle Carter
- West Bond
- South Carter
- North Hancock
- South Kinsman
- South Hancock
- North Kinsman
- North Tripyramid
- East Osceola
- Middle Tripyramid
- Wildcat D
- Owl's Head